To develop affordable carbon dioxide emission mitigation technologies that can be made available in a critically short timeframe.
REACH STABILIZATION OF EMISSIONS BY 2050 REQUIRE OF AN ANNUAL ADDITION OF
APPROXIMATELY 300 GW OF NEW NON-CARBON EMITTING POWER CAPACITY—APPROXIMATELY
ONE NEW NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PER DAY OR DEVELOP AROUND 3,400 MASSIVE BIOMASS
POWER PLANTS—AT AN AVERAGE RATE OF OVER 2 PER WEEK FOR THE NEXT 32 YEARS.
Much of the current energy provision and consumption comes
from coal, and will continue to do so far into the future. Coal can be used to
generate electricity at a price that people can afford; it is an appealing fuel
and is in widespread use. Thus, the world has a thorny issue to deal with
global demand for energy, both for livelihood and for pure economic growth, as
well as an existing, sizeable, carbon-intense infrastructure.
believe that the Earth Climate Problem can be solve with Current Technologies
without Disruptive Changes in the Global Energy System through a comprehensive,
global effort to use sulphur as an ancillary fuel. Aside from carbon and
hydrocarbons, sulphur is the only other naturally occurring material from which
energy can be harnessed by combustion.
The utilization of sulphur for direct
heat energy generation is an idea very alien to the engineering community which
traditionally identified it in power production as an undesirable source of
pollution and corrosion. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) as a product of sulphur
combustion when dissolves in water droplets form acid and when discharge to
environment interacts with other gases and particles in the air to form
sulphates and other products that can be harmful to people and the environment. Therefore, the function of the sulphur assisted technology platform presented
here is an alternative means of dealing with the SO2, unimpeded it from its
dependence on sulphuric acid production thereby unlocking the key to the
widespread utilization of sulphur as an ancillary source of energy.
Sulfur Fountainhead of Life in the Universe.pdf
By what means
principles and mechanisms of the critical individual components of the Platform
are well-known and proven, they are assembled into a system which, as a whole,
has never before been conceived to be employed in the context of carbon
mitigation. As such, these principles, mechanisms, components are not covered
by existing, validated requirements or standard. Therefore, it is essential to
verify, through collaboration with external partner(s) with demonstrated
competencies in a given technology, compliance with validated requirements from
accepted engineering practices and applicable standards and performance, as a
criterion to facilitate future collaborative development.
Sulphur Assisted Carbon Capture and Utilization US9802153B2.pdf
How did the platform concept originate?
BOGDAN WOJAK, technological entrepreneur, committed himself to the specific technology which can provided a versatile, adaptable, state-of-art waste remediation platform for processing most common waste stream within one integrated system. Working towards this goal he has obtain Battelle Memorial Institute license of vitrification technology to effectively treat and dispose of municipal waste materials without creating undue environmental contamination. In the same time, he initiates research on application vitrification technology for treatment of phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of processing phosphate ore into fertilizer with sulfuric acid. It is radioactive due to the presence of naturally occurring uranium and radium in the phosphate ore. With two of US Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) vitrification technology leading researches, Chris Chapman and Richard Peters, he initially obtained research grants from Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR) to investigate the manufacture of vitrified glass products from PG. Manufacture was successfully demonstrated on a pilot scale; however, the economics of the process would not justify commercial implementation due to the energy requirements of the process.
A subsequent grant from FIPR addressed the energy issue by attempting to recover sulphur in the process that could be utilized to drive the process. A process was developed whereby energy co-produced in sulfuric acid production could be substantially increased. During these investigations it became apparent that the energy values available through sulfur combustion are potentially enormous. Current energy production from sulfur combustion is limited to co-production at sulfuric acid production facilities, which provides sufficient energy to power the phosphate fertilizer production complex. This limitation on energy production arises because the product of sulfur combustion, sulfur dioxide (SO2),
is a harmful air pollutant whose emissions are strictly limited and regulated.
Presently the only large scale industrial practice that can utilize sulphur
dioxide is in the production of sulphuric acid. In fact, more than 90% of the
world’s consumption of sulphur is dedicated to the production of sulphuric
acid, and the vast majority of this is produced by the global phosphate
fertilizer industry which employs sulphuric acid in the acidulation of
phosphate rock for phosphoric acid production.
There are vast resources of sulphur, both natural, and by-product, available in the world beyond the current requirements of industry. It was thought that if an alternative means of dealing with the products of sulphur combustion could be found, energy derived through sulphur combustion could be freed from its dependence on sulphuric acid production, thereby unlocking the key to the widespread utilization of sulphur as a source of energy. To address this issue, he educates his self in chemistry that helps him to come with concept of generation of energy by using sulphur as a fuel.
Development of Process to Manufacture
Glass/Glass-Ceramic Products from Phosphogypsum. Chris Chapman, Bogdan Wojak, and
Richard Peters; with P.K. Bhattacharjee - Vitrification International
Technologies, Inc.; prepared under a grant sponsored by the Florida Institute
of Phosphate Research, Bartow, Florida. FIPR Publication no.01-153-221. April 2006.
Development of Process to Manufacture Glass Products from Phosphogypsum. Chris Chapman, Richard Peters, and Bogdan Wojak – Vitrification International Technologies, Inc.; prepared under a grant sponsored by the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Bartow, Florida. FIPR Publication no. 01-153-163. April 1999.
Sulphur-Assisted Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) Processes and Systems, patents: CA2931223, US9802153.
Sulphur-Assisted Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Processes and Systems, patent: CA2898519, US10066834.
Methods and Systems for Transporting Sulphur as a COS, patent: CA2791963.
Method and Systems for Sulphur Combustion, patents: CA2813125, CA2700746, EP2203680.
Gas Turbine Topping in Sulfuric Acid Manufacture, patents: CA2663131, EP2069233.
Gas Turbine Topping Device in a System for Manufacturing Sulphuric Acid and Method of Using Turbine To Recover Energy in Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, patents: CA2639747, US7543438.
gratefully acknowledges the generous funding from Florida
Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute (FIPR) and Thomas Dutcher who
has forty-seven years of project engineering, engineering design,
construction management experience, and as a successful business owner. His
work includes over twenty years of incineration and waste-to-energy engineering
Advisory and literature review support provided by an exceptionally knowledgeable and experienced team of dedicated specialists, Mike Lloyd and Gary Albarelli of Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute is also greatly appreciated.
The chemistry, thermodynamic and energy/mass balances for the method of sulphur combustion as the kinetic simulation of the reduction of sulphur dioxide (SO2) by carbonyl sulphide (COS) have been performed by Dr. Kunal Karan of the Department of Chemical Engineering of Queens University in Kingston, Ontario.
special thanks to Dr. Laszlo T. Nemeth, co-inventor of the CO2/COS
conversion process for several thoughtful and stimulating discussions of this
work. It is
noteworthy that Dr. Nemeth had the very fortunate opportunity to work as a
post-doctorate with Nobel Laureate, Professor George Olah, the initiator of the idea of a Methanol Economy, which the technologies proposed by Sulverenergy attempt to realize.