Exploratory Engineering

An interactive on-situ arrangement comprising sulfur fueled Hybrid Energy System (HES) for providing energy for the water electrolysis to produce oxygen (O2) for sulfur combustion significantly efficiency enhanced by coproduced hydrogen (H2) utilized in bitumen upgrading and/or in the process of catalytic reduction of gypsum (CaSO4) to calcium oxide (CaO).  Alternatively, gypsum is reduced by applying sulfur vapor (S2). The CaO is further used as an absorbent in the processes of Enhance Gas Steam Reforming (E-SMR), Direct Air Capture (DAC), and Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR).  The arrangement also encloses the CO2 conversion process to intermediate carbonyl sulfide (COS) gas which, when oxidated by sulfur dioxide (SO2), the product of sulfur combustion, reduces it to sulfur and CO2, enabling the combustion energy value of sulfur without the detrimental atmospheric impact of sulfur oxides and to be regarded as renewable as a sulfur feedstock is recycling.

The CO2 conversion reactant carbon disulfide (CS2) is produced using oil sands processing derivatives. Attainable hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may be applied as a reactant. Furthermore, applying CaO directly for CO2 permanent capture eliminates the need for the energy required to regenerate and release the CO2 from the capture material. Besides, the CDR concomitant with Peace Point or Fort McMurray gypsum deposits allows permanent in-situ storage avoiding CO2 transport, injection, or monitoring. 

In addition, if required, the setup enclosed the modified Claus Oxygen-based Process Expansion (NOTICE) process that uses SO2 not only to act as a quench by absorbing sensible heat but also to reduce the extent of the exothermic H2S oxidation that takes place in the reaction furnace. 

To improve the efficiency of hydrogen production on the scale, the modified thermochemical hybrid sulfur cycle HyS (also known as the Westinghouse cycle) can be enclosed. It uses the sulfur trioxide (SO3) directly from the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition at the temperature of 350 - 450° C and carrier to the bed of molten sulfur of the HES submerged combustor where the SO3 undergoes further chemical reduction to sulfur dioxide (SO2) thus reducing significant require a temperature of current art. Also, the hydrogen bromide conversion at the CS2 process forming can be performed via electrolysis. 

Nearly all of the fundamental constituents of the Project are initiated from existing industrially proven technologies, or they are extensively reported in science or patent literature. Hence, the principles and mechanisms of the individual components are well-known and established. However, some specific elements of the system are based on certain simplifying assumptions about the essential chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another; thus, the objective of this stage of the project development is to assess how well the evidence provided fulfills the specified goals and then determine at laboratory bench scale, the scheme critical conditions and validate the requirements from sound engineering practices, applicable standard, or performance as an acceptance for the future facilitation of its commercialization. The future intention of this undertaking is to provide evidence that the Project holds the capacity for the creative perspective of worldwide universal, unambiguous business models as a sustained financial incentive to deploy mitigation technologies that were hitherto not possible or economically feasible.